# Pascal's Principle

Card 1: Pascal's Principle

## Pascal's Principle

Pascal's principle states that any change in pressure applied to an enclosed liquid will be transmitted to every point of the fluid without any change in magnitude.

Card 2: Pascal's Priciple - Prove

## Pascal's Priciple - Prove

When the plunger is pushed in, the water squirts equally from all the holes. This shows that the pressure applied to the plunger has been transmitted uniformly throughout the water.

Card 3: Hydraulic System

## Hydraulic System

F1 = Force exerted on the small piston
A1 = area of the small piston
F2 = Force exerted on the big piston
A2 = area of the big piston

The hydraulic system acts as a force multiplier.

Example 1

In a hydraulic system the large piston has cross-sectional area A2 = 200 cm2 and the small piston has cross-sectional area A1 = 5 cm2. If a force of 250 N is applied to the small piston, what is the force F, on the large piston?

Card 4: Application 1- Hydraulic Jack

## Hydraulic Jack

-When the handle is pressed down, valve A is closed whereas valve B is opened. The hydraulic fluid is forced into the large cylinder and hence pushes the piston moving upward.

-When the handle is raised, valve B will be closed while vale A will be opened. Hydraulic fluid from the buffer tank will be suck into the small cylinder.

-This process is repeated until the load is sufficiently lifted up.

-The large piston can be lowered down by releasing the hydraulic fluid back to the buffer tank through the release vale.

Card 5: Application 2 - Hydraulic Brake

## Hydraulic Brake

When the brake pedal is pressed, the piston of the master cylinder applies a pressure on the brake fluid.

This pressure is transmitted uniformly to each cylinders at the wheel, cause the pistons at the wheels to push the brake shoes to press against the surface of the brake.

The friction between the brakes and brake shoes causes the vehicle to slow down and stop.

Card 6: Other Applications

## Other Applications of Hydraulic System

• Excavator
• Bulldozer
• Power steering
• Hydraulic Garage Lift
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