The Gas Law

Card 1: State Boyle's law.

Boyle's Law

Boyle's law states that the pressure of a gas with constant mass is inversely proportional to its volume provided the temperature of the gas is kept constant.

Card 2: Formula of Boyle's Law

Formula of Boyle's Law

Example 1

Figure (a) above shows a capillary tube with a thread of mercury 2cm long. The length of the air trapped in the tube is 10cm. Find the length of the trapped air if the tube is inverted as shown in figure (b). [Atmospheric pressure = 76cmHg]

Answer:

In case (a), the pressure of the gas trapped in the capillary is equal to the atmospheric pressure + the pressure caused by the mercury thread.

P1 = 76 + 2 = 78cmHg
V1 = 10cm

Incase (b), the pressure of the gas trapped in the capillary is equal to the atmospheric pressure - the pressure caused by the mercury thread.

P2 = 76 - 2 = 74cmHg
V2 = ?

By using Boyle's Lwa's formula

P1V1 = P2V2
(78)(10) = (74)V2
V2 = 10.54cm

The length of the trapped air in figure (b) is 10.54cm
Card 3: Graph of Boyle's Law

Graph of Boyle's Law

According to Boyle's Law, gas pressure (P) is inversely proportional to the volume of the gas (V) or P is directly proportional to 1/V.

boyle's law graph

Card 4: State the Pressure Law of Gas

Pressure Law

Pressure states that for a fixed mass of gas, the pressure of the gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature if the volume remains constant.

Card 5: Formula of Pressure Law

Formula of Pressure Law

Notes: The temperature must be the absolute temperature (Kelvin Scale)

Example 2

A gas in a container with a constant volume has a pressure of 200,000Pa at a temperature of 30oC. What is the pressure of the gas if the temperature is increased to 60oC?

Answer:

At 30oC,
P1 = 200,000Pa
T1 = 30oC = 273 + 30= 303K
(Note: the temperature must be in Kelvin scale)

At 60oC,
P2 = ?
T2 = 60oC = 273 + 60 = 333K

By using the formula of Pressure Law,

\begin{gathered}
\frac{{P_1 }}
{{T_1 }} = \frac{{P_2 }}
{{T_2 }} \hfill \\
\frac{{(200,000)}}
{{(303)}} = \frac{{P_2 }}
{{(333)}} \hfill \\
P_2 = \frac{{(200,000) \times (333)}}
{{(303)}} = 219802Pa \hfill \\
\end{gathered}
Card 6: Graph of Pressure Law

Graph of Pressure Law

Pressure is directly proportional to the temperature.

pressure law graph

Card 7: State the Charle's Law of Gas

Charle's Law

Charles’s Law states that for a fixed mass of gas, the volume of the gas is directly proportional to the absolute temperature provided the pressure remains constant.

Card 8: Formula of Charle's Law

Formula of Charle's Law

Notes: The temperature must be the absolute temperature (Kelvin Scale)

Example 3
A balloon is filled with 2000cm3 of gas at 27oC. The balloon is immersed in a container filled with water and the water is then heated. If the pressure in the balloon remain constant, find the volume of the gas when its temperature is 57oC.

Answer:

At 27oC,
V1 = 2000cm3
T1 = 27oC = 27 + 273 = 300K

At 57oC,
V2 = ?
T2 = 57oC = 57 + 273 = 330K

By using the formula of Charle's Law,

\begin{gathered}
\frac{{V_1 }}
{{T_1 }} = \frac{{V_2 }}
{{T_2 }} \hfill \\
\frac{{(2,000)}}
{{(30)}} = \frac{{V_2 }}
{{(33)}} \hfill \\
V_2 = \frac{{(2,000) \times (330)}}
{{(300)}} = 2200cm^3 \hfill \\
\end{gathered}

Card 9: Graph of Charle's Law

Graph of Charle's Law

Volume of gas is directly proportional to the temperature of the gas.

charle's law graph

Card 10: Universal Gas Law - Formula

Formula of Universal Gas Law

Click here to see out online tuition demo