Thermal Equilibrium

Card 1: Thermal Energy

Thermal Energy

Thermal energy is a measure of the total kinetic and potential energy in all the molecules and atoms in a certain substance.

Card 2: Thermal Equilibrium

Thermal Equilibrium

Thermal equilibrium is achieved between two bodies when there is no net heat flow between the two bodies.

2 objects in contact will achieve thermal equilibrium when the temperatures are the same.

Card 3: Temperature

Temperature

Temperature is a physical quantity which measures the degree of hotness of an object.

Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy which each molecule of an object possesses.

One object is at a higher temperature than another if the average kinetic energy of each of its molecules is greater.

Card 4: What is heat?

What is heat?

Heat is the flow of thermal energy.

Card 5: Comparing Thermal Energy and Temperature

Comparing Thermal Energy and Temperature

 Temperature Thermal Energy Degree of hotness of an object A form of Energy Unit: Kelvin (K) / Degree Celsius (oC) Unit: Joule (J) It is the average kinetic energy of the particles It is the sum of the kinetic energy and potential energy of the particles It is a base quantity It is a derived quantity
Card 6: Application of thermal equilibrium - Thermometer

Application of Thermal Equilibrium - Thermometer (The original file of this image can be founded in the wikipedia)

• Thermometer is placed in contact with the patient’s body.
• If both the body temperature of the patient and that of the mercury (or alcohol) in the clinical thermometer have reached thermal equilibrium, then the temperature of the thermometer is the same as the body temperature, hence the reading of the thermometer shows the body temperature of the patient.
Card 7: Application of thermal equilibrium - Refrigerator

Application of Thermal Equilibrium - Refrigerator (The original file of this image can be founded in the wikipedia)

• When food is put in the refrigerator, the heat from the food is transferred into the air of the refrigerator.
• This process is continue until the temperature of the food is equal to the temperature of the air in the refrigerator, when thermal equilibrium is reached between the food and the refrigerator.
Card 8: Application of thermal equilibrium - Oven

Application of Thermal Equilibrium - Oven (The original file of this image can be founded in the wikipedia)

• When food such as meat or cake is put in the oven, the heat of the oven is transferred into the food.
• This process will continue until the food is in thermal equilibrium with the air in the oven.
• This happen when the temperature of the food is equal to the temperature of the air in the oven.
Card 9: Empty Card

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